Brun’s Key Characteristics of Produsage and Google Chrome

Google Chrome is a web browser that acts as a base platform users use to access the internet and the various communities that it allows them to join and flow between. In terms of Axel Bruns’s four key characteristics of produsage, Google Chrome falls under all four because it is a platform that allows users to participate in produsage activities. Bruns’s four characteristics include:

  • Organisational Shift: Chrome allows users to evolve from individuals and team members to become participants in groups or communities that are engaging in collective knowledge and produsage practices. Bruns (Bruns, 2007) uses Wikipedia as an example, explaining that as users contribute collectively to the articles on Wikipedia they are engaging in produsage practices. Chrome operates, in this case, as a platform that allows users to access Wikipedia where they can engage in produsage.
  • Fluid movements: Chrome not only allows users to flow between different websites and the content housed there, but it also allows users to become fluid agents of produsage. Bruns (Bruns, 2007) says that users can now take on different roles and flow between these roles in groups and communities to create produsage artefacts. This is true of users who utilise Chrome to access sites such as Wikipedia where users collaborate to publish an updated version of a produsage artefact.
  • Unfinished: Chrome allows users to access finished products which they consume, users then use their newly learned knowledge to contribute to artefacts of produsage that Bruns (Bruns, 2007) describes as, and can be regarded as, ‘…rapidly evolving revisions of existing content, released for public view and further update immediately upon revision.’
  • Permissive: Bruns (Bruns, 2007) says that produsage artefacts are able to be reviewed and added to by anyone, he says that artefacts become objects more of merit than ownership meaning that these are collective works owned by nobody, not even if you added to the artefact. This is very true of the articles you read on Wikipedia which users access and add to by using Google Chrome, if that is the web browser they use.

Google Chrome is not an artefact of produsage, it is a product designed and distributed by Google Inc. that users use to access and contribute to produsage content.


Bruns, A., 2007. Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 April 2014].


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